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Comparison operators

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Besondere Member-Funktionen
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Special member functions
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Inline Montage
 
Vergleicht die Argumente .
Original:
Compares the arguments.
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Operator name Syntax Over​load​able Prototype examples (for class T)
Inside class definition Outside class definition
equal to a == b Yes bool T::operator ==(const T2 &b) const; bool operator ==(const T &a, const T2 &b);
not equal to a != b Yes bool T::operator !=(const T2 &b) const; bool operator !=(const T &a, const T2 &b);
less than a < b Yes bool T::operator <(const T2 &b) const; bool operator <(const T &a, const T2 &b);
greater than a > b Yes bool T::operator >(const T2 &b) const; bool operator >(const T &a, const T2 &b);
less than or equal to a <= b Yes bool T::operator <=(const T2 &b) const; bool operator <=(const T &a, const T2 &b);
greater than or equal to a >= b Yes bool T::operator >=(const T2 &b) const; bool operator >=(const T &a, const T2 &b);
'Notes'
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Notes
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  • Alle eingebauten Operatoren Rückkehr bool, und die meisten benutzerdefinierten Überlastungen auch bool so dass die benutzerdefinierten Operatoren in der gleichen Weise wie die built-ins verwendet werden zurückkehren. Jedoch in einer benutzerdefinierten Operator Überlast kann jeder Typ als Rückkehr-Typ (einschließlich void) verwendet werden .
    Original:
    All built-in operators return bool, and most user-defined overloads also return bool so that the user-defined operators can be used in the same manner as the built-ins. However, in a user-defined operator overload, any type can be used as return type (including void).
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  • T2 kann jeder Typ einschließlich T sein
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    T2 can be any type including T
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Inhaltsverzeichnis

[Bearbeiten] Erklärung

Gibt den boolean Ergebnis des Vergleichs der Werte der Argumente, die nicht geändert werden .
Original:
Returns the boolean result of comparison of the values of the arguments, which are not modified.
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[Bearbeiten] Arithmetische Vergleichsoperatoren

Für jedes Paar von geförderten arithmetische Typen L und R, einschließlich Aufzählungstypen, beteiligen die folgende Funktion Signaturen in Überlast-Auflösung:
Original:
For every pair of promoted arithmetic types L and R, including enumeration types, the following function signatures participate in overload resolution:
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bool operator<(L, R);
bool operator>(L, R);
bool operator<=(L, R);
bool operator>=(L, R);
bool operator==(L, R);
bool operator!=(L, R);
Wenn die Operanden arithmetische oder Aufzählungstyp (scoped oder ohne Bereichseinschränkung) werden üblichen arithmetischen Umwandlungen nach den Regeln für arithmetischen Operatoren durchgeführt. Die Werte werden nach der Konvertierung verglichen:
Original:
If the operands has arithmetic or enumeration type (scoped or unscoped), usual arithmetic conversions are performed following the rules for arithmetischen Operatoren. The values are compared after conversions:
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[Bearbeiten] Beispiel

#include <iostream>
int main()
{
    std::cout << std::boolalpha;
    int n = -1;
 
    int n2 = 1;
    std::cout << " -1 == 1? " << (n == n2) << '\n'
              << "Comparing two signed values:\n"
              << " -1  < 1? " << (n < n2) << '\n'
              << " -1  > 1? " << (n > n2) << '\n';
 
    unsigned int u = 1;
    std::cout << "Comparing signed and unsigned:\n"
              << " -1  < 1? " << (n < u) << '\n'
              << " -1  > 1? " << (n > u) << '\n';
 
    unsigned char uc = 1;
    std::cout << "Comparing signed and smaller unsigned:\n"
              << " -1  < 1? " << (n < uc) << '\n'
              << " -1  > 1? " << (n > uc) << '\n';
}

Output:

-1 == 1? false
Comparing two signed values:
 -1  < 1? true
 -1  > 1? false
Comparing signed and unsigned:
 -1  < 1? false
 -1  > 1? true
Comparing signed and smaller unsigned:
 -1  < 1? true
 -1  > 1? false

[Bearbeiten] Pointer Vergleichsoperatoren

Für jede Art P die entweder Zeiger auf Objekt oder Zeiger auf Funktion oder std::nullptr_t ist, und für jede Art MP die einen Zeiger auf Member-Objekt oder Zeiger auf Member-Funktion ist die folgende Funktion Signaturen in Überladungsauflösung teilnehmen:
Original:
For every type P which is either pointer to object or pointer to function or std::nullptr_t, and for every type MP that is a pointer to member object or pointer to member function, the following function signatures participate in overload resolution:
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bool operator<(P, P);
bool operator>(P, P);
bool operator<=(P, P);
bool operator>=(P, P);
bool operator==(P, P);
bool operator!=(P, P);
bool operator==(MP, MP);
bool operator!=(MP, MP);
Vergleichsoperatoren können zwei Zeigern (oder Zeiger-zu-Mitgliedern für operator== und operator!= only), oder einen Zeiger und einen Null-Zeiger Konstante oder Null-Zeiger zwei Konstanten (aber nur solange, wie mindestens eine von ihnen ist vergleichen std::nullptr_t: Vergleich von NULL und NULL folgt arithmetischer Vergleich Regeln). Pointer Konvertierungen (Zeiger auf Benutzer Konvertierungen wenn die Argumente Zeigern auf Mitglieder sind) und sind mit beiden Qualifikation Konvertierungen Operanden angelegt, um das zusammengesetzte Zeigertyp zu erhalten, wie folgt
Original:
Comparison operators can be used to compare two pointers (or pointers-to-members, for operator== and operator!= only), or a pointer and a null pointer constant, or two null pointer constants (but only as long as at least one of them is std::nullptr_t: comparison of NULL and NULL follows arithmetic comparison rules). Pointer Konvertierungen (pointer to member conversions if the arguments are pointers to members) and Qualifikation Konvertierungen are applied to both operands to obtain the composite pointer type, as follows
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1)
Wenn beide Operanden NULL-Zeiger-Konstanten sind, ist der Verbund Zeigertyp std::nullptr_t
Original:
If both operands are null pointer constants, the composite pointer type is std::nullptr_t
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2)
Wenn ein Operand ein Null-Zeiger Konstante und das andere ist ein Zeiger, der zusammengesetzten Typ genau die Zeiger-Typ
Original:
If one operand a null pointer constant and the other is a pointer, the composite type is exactly the pointer type
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3)
Wenn beide Operanden Zeiger auf die gleiche Art, mit verschiedenen cv-Qualifikation sind, ist der Verbund Zeiger auf die gleiche Art mit cv-Qualifikation, die eine Vereinigung der cv-Qualifikationen der Argumente ist .
Original:
If both operands are pointers to the same type, with different cv-qualification, the composite is pointer to the same type with cv-qualification that is a union of the cv-qualifications of the arguments.
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Beachten Sie, dass dies bedeutet, dass jeder Zeiger mit void* verglichen werden können .
Original:
Note that this implies that any pointer can be compared with void*.
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Ergebnisse des Vergleichs zweier Zeiger (nach Umwandlungen) wie folgt bestimmt:
Original:
Results of comparing two pointers (after conversions) are determined as follows:
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1)
Wenn die Zeiger p und q
Original:
If the pointers p and q
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a)
verweisen auf das gleiche Objekt oder Funktion
Original:
point to the same object or function
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b)
oder weisen ein über das Ende des gleichen Array
Original:
or point one past the end of the same array
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c)
oder sind beide null Zeiger
Original:
or are both null pointers
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dann die Zeiger sind gleich: p==q, p<=q und p>=q Rückkehr true, während p!=q, p<q und p>q Rückkehr false
Original:
then the pointers compare equal: p==q, p<=q, and p>=q return true, while p!=q, p<q, and p>q return false,
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2)
Wenn einer der Operanden ein Null-Zeiger und die andere nicht, sie ungleich vergleichen: p==q kehrt true, p!=q kehrt false, ist das Verhalten anderer Betreiber nicht näher .
Original:
If one of the operands is a null pointer and the other is not, they compare unequal: p==q returns true, p!=q returns false, the behavior of other operators is unspecified.
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3)
Wenn die Zeiger p und q Punkt an Mitglieder der gleichen Array a[i] und a[j] oder ein über das Ende des Arrays, ergibt sie des Vergleichens der Zeiger ist der gleiche wie das Ergebnis des Vergleichs der Indizes: wenn i<j==true dann {{{1}}} .
Original:
If the pointers p and q point to members of the same array a[i] and a[j] or one past the end of the array, they results of comparing the pointers is the same as the result of comparing the indexes: if i<j==true then {{{1}}}.
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4)
Wenn die Zeiger p und q Punkt nicht-statische Datenelemente innerhalb der gleichen Klasse oder anderen Basis Unterobjekte innerhalb derselben abgeleitete Klasse, oder an ihre Mitglieder oder Unterobjekte rekursiv, und wenn die spitzen-to members / Unterobjekte haben die gleiche Zutrittskontrolle (zB sowohl public:), und die Klasse ist nicht eine Vereinigung, dann der Zeiger auf die später erklärte Unterobjekt / Mitglied im Vergleich größer als der Zeiger auf die bereits deklarierte Unterobjekt / Mitglied. In anderen Worten, die Mitglieder in jeder der drei Zugriffsarten im Speicher in der Reihenfolge der Deklaration positioniert .
Original:
If the pointers p and q point to non-static data members within the same class or different base subobjects within the same derived class, or to their members or subobjects, recursively, and if the pointed-to members/subobjects have the same access control (e.g. both public:), and the class is not a union, then the pointer to the later declared subobject/member compares greater than the pointer to the earlier declared subobject/member. In other words, class members in each of the three access modes are positioned in memory in order of declaration.
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6)
Wenn die Zeiger p und q Punkt Mitglieder derselben union, diese gleich Vergleichen (typischerweise eine explizite Konvertierung in void* wird für einen der Operanden benötigt)
Original:
If the pointers p and q point to members of the same union, they compare equal (typically an explicit conversion to void* is required for one of the operands)
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7)
Wenn einer der Zeiger ist ein Zeiger auf void und beide Zeiger auf der gleichen Adresse oder beiden Null-Pointer, vergleichen sie gleich .
Original:
If one of the pointers is a pointer to void and both pointers point to the same address or are both null pointers, they compare equal.
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8)
Wenn zwei Null-Zeiger-Konstanten verglichen werden, vergleichen sie gleich .
Original:
If two null pointer constants are compared, they compare equal.
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9)
Wenn beide Operanden Zeigern auf Elementfunktionen (Objekt oder eine Funktion) sind, vergleichen sie gleich, wenn sie beide auf dem gleichen Mitglied der meisten abgeleiteten Klasse .
Original:
If both operands are pointers to member (object or function), they compare equal if they both point to the same member of the most derived class.
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10)
Andernfalls (wenn die Zeiger auf Objekte in unterschiedlichen Arrays, oder um verschiedene Funktionen, oder den Mitgliedern der einen Gegenstand mit unterschiedlichen Zugangskontrolle, usw. zeigen), die Ergebnisse der p<q, p>q, p<=q und p>=q sind nicht spezifiziert, und kehrt p!=q false.
Original:
Otherwise (if the pointers point to objects in different arrays, or to different functions, or to members of some object with different access control, etc), the results of p<q, p>q, p<=q, and p>=q are unspecified, and p!=q returns false.
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[Bearbeiten] Beispiel

#include <iostream>
struct Foo  { int n1; int n2; };
union Union { int n; double d; };
int main()
{
    std::cout << std::boolalpha;
 
    char a[4] = "abc";
 
    char* p1 = &a[1];
    char* p2 = &a[2];
    std::cout << "Pointers to array elements: p1 == p2 " << (p1 == p2)
              << ", p1 < p2 "  << (p1 < p2) << '\n';
 
    Foo f;
    int* p3 = &f.n1;
    int* p4 = &f.n2;
    std::cout << "Pointers to members of a class: p3 == p4 " << (p3 == p4)
              << ", p3 < p4 "  << (p3 < p4) << '\n';
 
    Union u;
    int* p5 = &u.n;
    double* p6 = &u.d;
    std::cout << "Pointers to members of a union: p5 == (void*)p6 " << (p5 == (void*)p6)
              << ", p5 < p6 "  << (p5 < (void*)p6) << '\n';
}

Output:

Pointers to array elements: p1 == p2 false, p1 < p2 true
Pointers to members of a class: p3 == p4 false, p3 < p4 true
Pointers to members of a union: p5 == (void*)p6 true, p5 < p6 false

[Bearbeiten] Notes

Da diese Operator-Gruppe von links nach rechts, der Ausdruck a<b<c wird (a<b)<c analysiert, und nicht a<(b<c) oder (a<b)&&(b<c) .
Original:
Because these operators group left-to-right, the expression a<b<c is parsed (a<b)<c, and not a<(b<c) or (a<b)&&(b<c).
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Eine häufige Anforderung für benutzerdefinierte operator< ist strenge schwache Ordnung. Insbesondere wird dies durch den Standard-Algorithmen und Containern, die mit LessThanComparable Typen arbeiten erforderlich: std::sort, std::max_element, std::map, etc.
Original:
A common requirement for user-defined operator< is strenge schwache Ordnung. In particular, this is required by the standard algorithms and containers that work with LessThanComparable types: std::sort, std::max_element, std::map, etc.
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Obwohl die Ergebnisse des Vergleichens Zeigern von zufälligen Ursprungs (z. B. nicht alle auf Mitglieder der gleichen Array) ist unbegrenzt, bieten viele Implementierungen strenge totale Ordnung von Zeigern, zB wenn sie als Adressen innerhalb kontinuierlichen virtuellen Adressraum implementiert. Diese Implementierungen, die nicht (z. B. bei der nicht alle Bits der Zeiger Teil einer Speicheradresse und muss zum Vergleich ignoriert werden, oder eine zusätzliche Berechnung erforderlich ist oder anderweitig Zeigers und ganze Zahl nicht eine 1 zu 1 Beziehung) liefern ein Spezialisierung std::less für Zeiger, die diese Garantie hat. Dies macht es möglich, alle Zeiger der zufälligen Ursprungs als Schlüssel in Standard-assoziativen Containern wie verwenden std::set oder std::map .
Original:
Although the results of comparing pointers of random origin (e.g. not all pointing to members of the same array) is unspecified, many implementations provide strenge totale Ordnung of pointers, e.g. if they are implemented as addresses within continuous virtual address space. Those implementations that do not (e.g. where not all bits of the pointer are part of a memory address and have to be ignored for comparison, or an additional calculation is required or otherwise pointer and integer is not a 1 to 1 relationship), provide a specialization of std::less for pointers that has that guarantee. This makes it possible to use all pointers of random origin as keys in standard associative containers such as std::set or std::map.
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[Bearbeiten] Standard-Bibliothek

Vergleichsoperatoren sind für viele Klassen in der Standard-Bibliothek überlastet .
Original:
Comparison operators are overloaded for many classes in the standard library.
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checks whether the objects refer to the same type
(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::type_info) [edit]
vergleicht zwei error_codes
Original:
compares two error_codes
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(Funktion)
vergleicht error_conditions und error_codes
Original:
compares error_conditions and error_codes
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(Funktion)
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte in dem Paar
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the pair
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte in dem Tupel
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the tuple
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
vergleicht den Inhalt
Original:
compares the contents
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::bitset) [edit]
vergleicht zwei allocator Instanzen
Original:
compares two allocator instances
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::allocator) [edit]
vergleicht zu einem anderen oder mit unique_ptr nullptr
Original:
compares to another unique_ptr or with nullptr
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
vergleicht mit einem anderen shared_ptr oder mit nullptr
(Funktions-Template) [edit]
vergleicht eine std::function mit std::nullptr
Original:
compares an std::function with std::nullptr
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(Funktions-Template)
vergleicht zwei Laufzeiten
Original:
compares two durations
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(Funktions-Template)
vergleicht zwei Zeitpunkten
Original:
compares two time points
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(Funktions-Template)
vergleicht zwei scoped_allocator_adaptor Instanzen
Original:
compares two scoped_allocator_adaptor instances
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::scoped_allocator_adaptor) [edit]
vergleicht die zugrundeliegenden std::type_info Objekte
Original:
compares the underlying std::type_info objects
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::type_index) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht zwei Strings
Original:
lexicographically compares two strings
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
Gleichheit Vergleich zwischen locale Objekte
Original:
equality comparison between locale objects
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::locale) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte im array
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the array
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte im deque
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the deque
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte im forward_list
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the forward_list
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte im list
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the list
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte im vector
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the vector
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte im map
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the map
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte im multimap
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the multimap
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte im set
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the set
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte im multiset
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the multiset
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
vergleicht die Werte im unordered_map
Original:
compares the values in the unordered_map
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
vergleicht die Werte im unordered_multimap
Original:
compares the values in the unordered_multimap
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
vergleicht die Werte im unordered_set
Original:
compares the values in the unordered_set
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
vergleicht die Werte im unordered_multiset
Original:
compares the values in the unordered_multiset
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte im queue
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the queue
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte im stack
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the stack
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
vergleicht zwei reverse_iterators für die Gleichstellung
Original:
compares two reverse_iterators for equality
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(Funktions-Template)
Bestellungen reverse_iterators
Original:
orders reverse_iterators
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(Funktions-Template)
vergleicht zwei move_iterators
Original:
compares two move_iterators
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(Funktions-Template)
vergleicht zwei istream_iterators
Original:
compares two istream_iterators
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(Funktions-Template)
vergleicht zwei istreambuf_iterators
Original:
compares two istreambuf_iterators
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(Funktions-Template)
vergleicht zwei komplexen Zahlen oder ein Komplex und ein Skalar
Original:
compares two complex numbers or a complex and a scalar
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
vergleicht zwei valarrays oder eine valarray mit einem Wert
Original:
compares two valarrays or a valarray with a value
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(Funktions-Template) [edit]
vergleicht die internen Zustände der zwei Pseudo-Zufallszahlen-Generatoren
Original:
compares the internal states of two pseudo-random number engines
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(Funktion) [edit]
vergleicht zwei Verteilung Objekte
Original:
compares two distribution objects
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(Funktion) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte in dem Behälter
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the container
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(Funktion) [edit]
lexikographisch vergleicht die Werte in den beiden Spiel Ergebnis
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the two match result
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(Funktions-Template)
vergleicht zwei regex_iterators
Original:
compares two regex_iterators
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(Funktions-Template)
vergleicht zwei regex_token_iterators
Original:
compares two regex_token_iterators
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(Funktions-Template)
vergleicht zwei thread::id Objekte
Original:
compares two thread::id objects
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(Funktion)
automatically generates comparison operators based on user-defined operator== and operator<
(Funktions-Template) [edit]

[Bearbeiten] Siehe auch

Operator Vorrang

Common operators
Abtretung an incrementNJdecrement Arithmetik logisch Vergleich memberNJaccess andererseits

a = b
a = rvalue
a += b
a -= b
a *= b
a /= b
a %= b
a &= b
a |= b
a ^= b
a <<= b
a >>= b

++a
--a
a++
a--

+a
-a
a + b
a - b
a * b
a / b
a % b
~a
a & b
a | b
a ^ b
a << b
a >> b

!a
a && b
a || b

a == b
a != b
a < b
a > b
a <= b
a >= b

a[b]
*a
&a
a->b
a.b
a->*b
a.*b

a(...)
a, b
(type) a
? :

Special operators
static_cast wandelt einem Typ in einen anderen kompatiblen Typ
Original:
static_cast converts one type to another compatible type
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dynamic_cast wandelt virtuellen Basisklasse abgeleitet class
Original:
dynamic_cast converts virtual base class to derived class
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const_cast wandelt Typ kompatiblen Typ mit unterschiedlichen cv qualifiers
Original:
const_cast converts type to compatible type with different cv qualifiers
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reinterpret_cast wandelt Typ inkompatibel type
Original:
reinterpret_cast converts type to incompatible type
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new ordnet memory
Original:
new allocates memory
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delete freigibt memory
Original:
delete deallocates memory
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sizeof fragt die Größe eines type
Original:
sizeof queries the size of a type
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sizeof... fragt die Größe eines Parameter Pack (seit C++11)
Original:
sizeof... queries the size of a Parameter Pack (seit C++11)
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typeid fragt die Typinformationen eines type
Original:
typeid queries the type information of a type
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noexcept prüft, ob ein Ausdruck eine Ausnahme (seit C++11)
werfen kann
Original:
noexcept checks if an expression can throw an exception (seit C++11)
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alignof Abfragen Ausrichtungsanforderungen eines Typs (seit C++11)
Original:
alignof queries alignment requirements of a type (seit C++11)
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