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Increment/decrement operators

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Increment / Dekrement-Operatoren erhöht oder vermindert den Wert des Objekts .
Original:
Increment/decrement operators increments or decrements the value of the object.
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Operator name Syntax Over​load​able Prototype examples (for class T)
Inside class definition Outside class definition
pre-increment ++a Yes T& T::operator++(); T& operator++(T& a);
pre-decrement --a Yes T& T::operator--(); T& operator--(T& a);
post-increment a++ Yes T T::operator++(int); T operator++(T& a, int);
post-decrement a-- Yes T T::operator--(int); T operator--(T& a, int);
'Notes'
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Notes
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  • Formen der Präfix der eingebauten Operatoren Rückkehr Referenzen und Postfix Formen Rückgabewerte und typischen benutzerdefinierten Überlastungen dem Muster folgen, so dass die benutzerdefinierten Operatoren in der gleichen Weise wie die Einbauten verwendet werden kann. Jedoch in einer benutzerdefinierten Operator Überlast kann jeder Typ als Rückkehr-Typ (einschließlich void) verwendet werden .
    Original:
    Prefix forms of the built-in operators return references and postfix forms return values, and typical user-defined overloads follow the pattern so that the user-defined operators can be used in the same manner as the built-ins. However, in a user-defined operator overload, any type can be used as return type (including void).
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  • Die int Parameter eine Dummy-Parameter verwendet, um zwischen Prä-und Post-in-Versionen der Betreiber differenzieren. Wenn der Benutzer-definierten Postfix-Operator genannt wird, ist der Wert in diesem Parameter übergeben immer Null, obwohl es durch den Aufruf der Betreiber mit der Funktion Anruf Schreibweise geändert werden können, z. B. a.operator++(2) .
    Original:
    The int parameter is a dummy parameter used to differentiate between pre- and post- in versions of the operators. When the user-defined postfix operator is called, the value passed in that parameter is always zero, although it may be changed by calling the operator using function call notation, e.g. a.operator++(2).
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Inhaltsverzeichnis

[Bearbeiten] Erklärung

Pre-increment und Prä-Dekrement Betreiber erhöht oder vermindert den Wert des Objektes und gibt einen Verweis auf das Ergebnis .
Original:
pre-increment and pre-decrement operators increments or decrements the value of the object and returns a reference to the result.
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Post-Inkrement und Post-Dekrement erstellt eine Kopie des Objekts, erhöht oder vermindert den Wert des Objektes und gibt die Kopie aus der Zeit vor dem Inkrement oder Dekrement .
Original:
post-increment and post-decrement creates a copy of the object, increments or decrements the value of the object and returns the copy from before the increment or decrement.
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[Bearbeiten] Built-in Präfix-Operatoren

Für jedes wahlweise flüchtigen qualifizierte arithmetischen Typ A andere als bool, und für jeden wahlweise flüchtigen qualifizierte Zeiger P optional cv qualifizierte Objekttyp, die folgende Funktion Signaturen in Überladungsauflösung teilnehmen:
Original:
For every optionally volatile-qualified arithmetic type A other than bool, and for every optionally volatile-qualified pointer P to optionally cv-qualified object type, the following function signatures participate in overload resolution:
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A& operator++(A&)
bool& operator++(bool&)
(veraltet)
P& operator++(P&)
A& operator--(A&)
P& operator--(P&)
Der Operand eines eingebauten Präfix-Inkrement-oder Dekrement-Operator muss eine modifizierbare lvalue (non-const-Referenz) von nicht-boolean arithmetischen Typ oder Zeiger auf Objekt-Typ zu vervollständigen. Aus diesen Operanden, der Ausdruck ++x entspricht genau x+=1 ist, und der Ausdruck --x entspricht genau x-=1, das heißt, ist das Ergebnis der aktualisierte Operanden, wie L-Wert zurückgegeben und alle arithmetischen Umrechnungsregeln und Zeigerarithmetik Regeln definiert für arithmetischen Operatoren gelten .
Original:
The operand of a built-in prefix increment or decrement operator must be a modifiable lvalue (non-const reference) of non-boolean arithmetic type or pointer to complete object type. For these operands, the expression ++x is exactly equivalent to x+=1, and the expression --x is exactly equivalent to x-=1, that is, the result is the updated operand, returned as lvalue, and all arithmetic conversion rules and pointer arithmetic rules defined for arithmetischen Operatoren apply.
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Wenn der Operand des Prä-Inkrement-Operator ist vom Typ bool, wird es auf true (veraltet) .
Original:
If the operand of the preincrement operator is of type bool, it is set to true (veraltet).
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[Bearbeiten] Built-in Postfix-Operatoren

Für jedes wahlweise flüchtigen qualifizierte arithmetischen Typ A andere als bool, und für jeden wahlweise flüchtigen qualifizierte Zeiger P optional cv qualifizierte Objekttyp, die folgende Funktion Signaturen in Überladungsauflösung teilnehmen:
Original:
For every optionally volatile-qualified arithmetic type A other than bool, and for every optionally volatile-qualified pointer P to optionally cv-qualified object type, the following function signatures participate in overload resolution:
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A operator++(A&, int)
bool operator++(bool&, int)
(veraltet)
P operator++(P&, int)
A operator--(A&, int)
P operator--(P&, int)
Der Operand eines eingebauten postfix Inkrement oder Dekrement-Operator muss eine modifizierbare lvalue (non-const-Referenz) von nicht-boolean arithmetischen Typ oder Zeiger auf Objekt-Typ zu vervollständigen. Das Ergebnis ist ein prvalue, die eine Kopie der ursprüngliche Wert des Operanden. Als Nebeneffekt, ändert dieser Operator den Wert des Arguments arg, als ob durch die Auswertung arg += 1 oder arg -= 1 für Inkrement-und Dekrement sind. Alle arithmetischen Umrechnungsregeln und Zeigerarithmetik Regeln für arithmetischen Operatoren gelten definiert .
Original:
The operand of a built-in postfix increment or decrement operator must be a modifiable lvalue (non-const reference) of non-boolean arithmetic type or pointer to complete object type. The result is a prvalue, which is a copy the original value of the operand. As a side-effect, this operator modifies the value of its argument arg as if by evaluating arg += 1 or arg -= 1, for increment and decrement respectively. All arithmetic conversion rules and pointer arithmetic rules defined for arithmetischen Operatoren apply.
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Wenn der Operand des Postinkrement Betreiber ist vom Typ bool, wird es auf true (veraltet) .
Original:
If the operand of the postincrement operator is of type bool, it is set to true (veraltet).
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[Bearbeiten] Beispiel

#include <iostream>
int main()
{
    int n = 1;
    int n2 = ++n;
    int n3 = ++ ++n;
    int n4 = n++;
//    int n5 = n++ ++; // compile error
//    int n5 = n + ++n; // undefined behavior
    std::cout << "n = " << n << '\n'
              << "n2 = " << n2 << '\n'
              << "n3 = " << n3 << '\n'
              << "n4 = " << n4 << '\n';
}

Output:

n = 5
n2 = 2
n3 = 4
n4 = 4

[Bearbeiten] Notes

Wegen der Nebenwirkungen beteiligt sind, müssen eingebaute Inkrement-und Dekrement-Operatoren mit Vorsicht verwendet werden, um undefiniertes Verhalten aufgrund von Verstößen gegen Sequenzierung Regeln vermeiden .
Original:
Because of the side-effects involved, built-in increment and decrement operators must be used with care to avoid undefined behavior due to violations of Sequenzierung Regeln.
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Da eine temporäre Kopie des Objekts während des Betriebs ausgebildet ist, Prä-Inkrement' oder' Prä-Dekrement Operatoren sind in der Regel effizienter in Kontexten, wo der zurückgegebene Wert nicht verwendet wird .
Original:
Because a temporary copy of the object is constructed during the operation, pre-increment or pre-decrement operators are usually more efficient in contexts where the returned value is not used.
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[Bearbeiten] Standard-Bibliothek

Inkrement-und Dekrement-Operatoren sind für viele Standard-Bibliothek Typen überlastet. Insbesondere jeden Iterator Überlastungen operator + + und jede BidirectionalIterator Überlastungen Betreiber -, auch wenn diese Betreiber keine-ops für die jeweilige Iterator sind .
Original:
Increment and decrement operators are overloaded for many standard library types. In particular, every Iterator overloads operator++ and every BidirectionalIterator overloads operator--, even if those operators are no-ops for the particular iterator.
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Überladungen für arithmetische Typen
Original:
overloads for arithmetic types
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erhöht oder vermindert den atomaren Wert um eins
Original:
increments or decrements the atomic value by one
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::atomic) [edit]
erhöht oder verringert die Anzahl der Ticks
Original:
increments or decrements the tick count
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::chrono::duration)
Überladungen für Iterator-Typen
Original:
overloads for iterator types
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Fortschritte der Iterator
Original:
advances the iterator
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::raw_storage_iterator)
Fortschritte der Iterator
Original:
advances the iterator
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::reverse_iterator)
Verringert den Iterator
Original:
decrements the iterator
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::reverse_iterator)
no-op
(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::back_insert_iterator)
no-op
(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::front_insert_iterator)
no-op
(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::insert_iterator)
Fortschritte der Iterator
Original:
advances the iterator
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::move_iterator)
Verringert den Iterator
Original:
decrements the iterator
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::move_iterator)
Fortschritte der istream_iterator
Original:
advances the istream_iterator
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::istream_iterator)
no-op
(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::ostream_iterator)
Fortschritte der istreambuf_iterator
Original:
advances the istreambuf_iterator
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::istreambuf_iterator)
no-op
(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::ostreambuf_iterator)
Fortschritte der regex_iterator
Original:
advances the regex_iterator
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::regex_iterator)
Fortschritte der regex_token_iterator
Original:
advances the regex_token_iterator
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(öffentliche Elementfunktion of std::regex_token_iterator)

[Bearbeiten] Siehe auch

Operator Vorrang

Common operators
Abtretung an incrementNJdecrement Arithmetik logisch Vergleich memberNJaccess andererseits

a = b
a = rvalue
a += b
a -= b
a *= b
a /= b
a %= b
a &= b
a |= b
a ^= b
a <<= b
a >>= b

++a
--a
a++
a--

+a
-a
a + b
a - b
a * b
a / b
a % b
~a
a & b
a | b
a ^ b
a << b
a >> b

!a
a && b
a || b

a == b
a != b
a < b
a > b
a <= b
a >= b

a[b]
*a
&a
a->b
a.b
a->*b
a.*b

a(...)
a, b
(type) a
? :

Special operators
static_cast wandelt einem Typ in einen anderen kompatiblen Typ
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static_cast converts one type to another compatible type
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dynamic_cast wandelt virtuellen Basisklasse abgeleitet class
Original:
dynamic_cast converts virtual base class to derived class
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const_cast wandelt Typ kompatiblen Typ mit unterschiedlichen cv qualifiers
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const_cast converts type to compatible type with different cv qualifiers
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reinterpret_cast wandelt Typ inkompatibel type
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reinterpret_cast converts type to incompatible type
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new ordnet memory
Original:
new allocates memory
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delete freigibt memory
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delete deallocates memory
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sizeof fragt die Größe eines type
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sizeof queries the size of a type
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sizeof... fragt die Größe eines Parameter Pack (seit C++11)
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sizeof... queries the size of a Parameter Pack (seit C++11)
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typeid fragt die Typinformationen eines type
Original:
typeid queries the type information of a type
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noexcept prüft, ob ein Ausdruck eine Ausnahme (seit C++11)
werfen kann
Original:
noexcept checks if an expression can throw an exception (seit C++11)
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alignof Abfragen Ausrichtungsanforderungen eines Typs (seit C++11)
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alignof queries alignment requirements of a type (seit C++11)
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